This appendix provides further details of the survey methodology and other details about the approach to this research.
8.1. Research approach
As outlined in section 2.4, this research draws on a number of different sources. More detail can be found below:
1. Main research findings and further analysis Time Well Spent – a national survey of 10,103 people on the volunteer experience.
- This survey was completed by adults aged 18 and over in Great Britain through YouGov’s panel, via an online self-completion questionnaire between 4 and 15 May 2018. The total sample achieved was 10,103 respondents. The data was weighted to reflect the national population by key demographics: age, gender, education level and social grade. The survey focuses on volunteering through groups, clubs and organisations, known as formal volunteering. More technical details can be found in section 10 of the main Time Well Spent report.
- Further analysis was carried out by analysing the sub-set of public sector volunteers: those who reported giving unpaid help to a public sector organisation in the last 12 months as their main organisation, if multiple (n=649). We also compared with civil society volunteers (n=2637).
2. Primary research carried out specifically for this report: four focus groups, lasting 90 minutes, were carried out with volunteers who had given time to public sector organisations. Participants were recruited through an external agency. In each group, participants were recruited according to the following criteria:
- All aged 18 and over
- Each group to reflect a demographic mix of age, gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status and working status
- All must have volunteered in public sector organisations within the last 12 months
- Within each group, primarily those who either have interaction with/work alongside paid staff
- Mix of length of time volunteering in the public sector organisation
3. A range of research and literature on volunteering in the public sector, focusing on key subsectors. See section 8.3 for full list of literature and evidence cited in this report.
4. Finally, a round table discussion, led by the volunteering development team at NCVO included practice and policymakers and academics with interest in this area. During this round table, research findings were represented, followed by a discussion on practice and policy implications.
As outlined in section 2.5, throughout this report, as in the main Time Well Spent report, we use the term ‘volunteering’ to refer to formal volunteering through groups, clubs or organisations, which is the focus of this survey.
Furthermore, in the survey, the term volunteering was not used. Instead, they were asked whether they had been involved with any groups, clubs or organisation and then whether they had provided unpaid help to any groups, clubs or organisations, prompted by a list of activities as in the Community Life Survey. This method was used to encompass the full range of volunteering activities, some of which may not otherwise be recognised by respondents as volunteering.
8.3. Literature and evidence
Below is a full list of literature and evidence cited and used for this report.
- Ames, A., Szyndler, R., Burston, Phillips, R., Keith, J., Gaunt, R., Davies, S. and Mottram, C. (2011), The strengths and skills of the Judiciary in the Magistrates’ Courts (accessed January 2020)
- Baber, G. (2018), The Positive and Negative Impact of Using Volunteers in Public Libraries (accessed January 2020)
- Balarin, M., Brammer, S., James, C and McCormack, M. (2014), The School Governance Study (accessed January 2020)
- Belfield, C., Farquharson, C. and Sibieta, L. (2018), 2018 annual report on education spending in England (accessed January 2020)
- Body, A., Holman, K. and Hogg, E (2016), To bridge the gap? Voluntary action in primary education (accessed January 2020)
- Body, A. and Hogg, E (2016): A bridge too far: the increasing role of voluntary action in primary education (accessed January 2020)
- Britton, I. and Callender, M. (2016), Citizen Involvement in Policing - A critical but under-researched aspect of policing (accessed January 2020)
- Britton, I. Knight, L. and Lugli, V. (2018), Citizens in Policing Benchmarking Report (accessed January 2020)
- Brodie, E., Hughes, T, Jochum, V., Miller, S., Ockenden, N. and Warbuton, D. (2011), Pathways through Participation: What creates and sustains active citizenship? (accessed January 2020)
- Buddery, P. (2015), Volunteering and public services: where co-production meets localism (accessed January 2020)
- Cabinet Office (2010), Building the Big Society (accessed January 2020)
- Callender, M., Cahalin, K., Britton, I., and Knight, L (2018), National Survey of Police Support Volunteers (accessed January 2020)
- Callender, M., Cahalin, K., Britton, I., and Knight, L (2018), National Survey of Special Constables (accessed January 2020)
- Callender, M., Cahalin, K., Cole, S., Hubbard, L. and Britton, I. (2018), Understanding the Motivations, Morale, and Retention of Special Constables: Findings from a National Survey. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, pay058 (accessed January 2020)
- Casselden, B., Pickard, A. and McLeod, J. (2015), The challenges facing public libraries in the Big Society: The role of volunteers, and the issues that surround their use in England. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, vol. 47 no. 3 (accessed January 2020)
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- CILIP (2017), Public libraries use of volunteers: full policy statement (accessed January 2020)
- Conway, N. and Briner, R. B. (2005), Understanding Psychological Contracts at Work: A critical evaluation of theory and research
- Creative and Cultural Skills (2008), The Cultural Heritage Blueprint: A workforce development plan for cultural heritage in the UK (accessed January 2020)
- Davies, S. (2013), The public library service under attack how cuts are putting individuals and communities at risk and damaging local businesses and economies (accessed January 2020)
- Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (2018), Civil Society Strategy: building a future that works for everyone (accessed January 2020)
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- Ellis Paine, A., and Hill, M. (2016) ‘The engagement of volunteers in third sector organisations delivering public services’ chpt 7, pp.127-148 in Rees, D. and Mullins, D.(eds) The third sector delivering public services, Policy Press: Bristol.
- Galea, A., Naylor, C., Buck, D. and Weaks, L. (2013), Volunteering in acute trusts in England: understanding the scale and impact (accessed January 2020)
- Green, A-M., Ward, J. (2016), Too much of a good thing? The emotional challenges of managing affectively committed volunteers (accessed January 2020)
- Hellen, N. (2019), ‘The NHS wants you… to volunteer if you’re a professional.’ The Times (accessed January 2020)
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- Low, N., Butt, S., Ellis, P. and Davis Smith, J. (2007). Helping Out: A national survey of volunteering and charitable giving. London: Cabinet Office (accessed January 2020).
- Ministry of Justice (2017): Judiciary Diversity Statistics 2017 (accessed January 2020)
- Ministry of Justice (2018): Judiciary Diversity Statistics 2018 (accessed January 2020)
- Museums Association, Getting a first job (accessed January 2020)
- Museums Association (2018), Museums in the UK 2018 Report (accessed January 2020)
- National Audit Office (2018), Financial sustainability of police forces in England and Wales 2018 (accessed January 2020)
- Naylor, C., Mundle, C., Weaks, L., and Buck, D. (2013), Volunteering in health and care: securing a sustainable future (accessed January 2020)
- NCVO (2005), Civil renewal and active citizenship: a guide to the debate (accessed January 2020)
- NHS England (2017), Recruiting and managing volunteers in NHS providers, a practical guide (accessed January 2020)
- NHS (2019), The NHS Long Term Plan (accessed January 2020)
- Nichols, G. (2013) ‘The psychological contract of volunteers: A new research agenda.’ Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, vol. 24, no. 4 (accessed January 2020)
- ONS (2016), Public sector employment UK: March 2016 (accessed January 2020)
- Policing and Crime Act (2017) (accessed January 2020)
- Rochester, C., Paine, A.E., Howlett, S., Zimmeck, M. and Ellis Paine, A. (2010), Volunteering and Society in the 21st Century
- Ross, S., Fenney, D., Ward, D. and Buck, D (2018), The Role of volunteers in the NHS: views from the front line (accessed January 2020)
- Staufenburg, J. (2018), ‘Reception staff increasingly unpaid and underqualified’ warns EPI.’ Schools Week (accessed January 2020)
- Step Up to Serve/#iwill (2019): The Power of Youth Social Action:#iwill campaign Impact Report (accessed January 2020)
- TUC (2009), A Charter for Strengthening Relationships between Paid Staff and Volunteers (accessed January 2020)
- Van Willigen, M. (2000), Differential benefits of volunteering across life course (accessed January 2020)
- Wainwright, D. et al: BBC News (2016), ‘Libraries close a quarter of staff as hundreds close.’ BBC News (accessed January 2020)